The Realm of AEDs
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is not the same thing as a heart attack (myocardial infarction), although a person suffering a heart attack has an increased risk of SCA.
Here’s how they differ:
It’s not always easy to tell if someone is suffering from SCA, but the victim will typically:
- Be unconscious
- Have no signs of circulation (e.g. no pulse)
- Not be breathing
Why is it important to know the difference between SCA and a heart attack? Because the treatment for each is very different:
- For a heart attack, medical professionals must administer medications, other life-saving procedures, and sometimes surgery, to unblock blood flow to the heart muscle. Time is important, with the best results occurring if treatment is received in the first hour of symptoms.
- For SCA, an electrical shock from a defibrillator must be delivered, the sooner the better, otherwise the victim will likely die. Laypersons can be easily trained to use an AED, thus dramatically increasing the odds of saving someone’s life.
Waiting for emergency professionals (e.g. EMS) when someone is in SCA could delay treatment and could cost the person his or her life.
The only way to effectively treat sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is with an electrical shock delivered by a defibrillator. Voltage stored by the defibrillator pushes electrical current through the heart by means of the electrodes or paddles placed on the chest. This brief pulse of current halts the chaotic activity of the heart, giving it a chance to start beating again with a normal rhythm. Delivering a shock that returns the heart to a normal rhythm is called defibrillation.
Early defibrillation is the key to surviving SCA.
Survival rates for SCA are highest when defibrillation occurs within the first few minutes. The person has the best chance of survival if the defibrillation shock is given within the first three minutes of collapsing.
But if a defibrillator is not immediately available, the outlook is grim. For each minute defibrillation is delayed, survival rates drop by about 7-10 percent-even if CPR is started immediately.
- The rate of survival for SCA victims averages less than two percent when defibrillation is delayed ten minutes or more.
- The average time it takes emergency crews to arrive is between 6-12 minutes.
- If the heart isn’t restarted within the first four to six minutes after the arrest, the victim may sustain irreversible brain damage.
For Your Information!
- The International Guidelines 2000 from the American Heart Association reports that “extraordinary survival rates-as high as 49%-have been reported in PAD (Public Access Defibrillation) programs. These rates are twice those previously reported for the most effective EMS systems.
- In one study, when a Las Vegas casino implemented an AED program, survival rates for VF-related SCA reached 70 percent when the SCA was witnessed and the AED was used within three minutes.
Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs)
An AED is a small, portable device that analyzes the heart’s rhythm and prompts the user to deliver a defibrillation shock if it determines one is needed. Once turned on, the AED guides the user through each step of the defibrillation process by providing voice and/or visual prompts.
AEDs are specially designed for easy use by a “first responder”, who would be the first person to typically arrive on the scene of a medical emergency. A first responder can be an emergency medical services worker, a firefighter or police officer, or it can be a layperson with minimal AED training.
Time to defibrillation, the most critical factor in sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survival, can be reduced if an AED is “on-site” and can be brought to the victim quickly. This is one of the reasons that survival rates improve in communities with active AED programs. Remember, every minute that passes before defibrillation reduces survival rates by 7-10 percent.
The goal is to improve SCA survival rates…..on-site AEDs can make the difference.
Once an AED is turned on, it provides prompts to guide the user through the process. One of the first prompts instructs the user to connect the AED to the victim via the adhesive electrodes (pads) placed on the chest.
The AED’s microprocessor then analyzes the victim’s heart rhythm through the electrodes using a built-in computer program. It then determines if a shock is “needed” or “necessary.” More specifically:
- The electrodes placed on the victim’s body send the heart rhythm information (ECGs) to the AED.
- The AED “reads” short segments of the heart’s rhythm. It checks characteristics such as frequency, shape, slope, amplitude and heart rate.
- Based on these characteristics, the AED determines whether or not a shock is needed and activates the appropriate user prompts or (in fully automatic versions) administers the shock.
In the above graphic series, the particular AED requires either 2 or 3 steps to save a life. Three steps if it is the semi-automatic unit and only the first two steps if it is the fully automatic version. Once you determine the person isn’t breathing or conscious, you just:
- Push the button to release the lid and turn on the defibrillator.
- Pull the handle to get the electrode pads and adhere them to the person’s chest as shown.
- Press the flashing button if told to do so. (Not necessary in fully automatic versions!)
If a shock is needed, the AED will prompt the user to press the button that delivers the shock. It will then re-analyze the heart rhythm to determine if more shocks are needed. If the unit is fully automatic, it will automatically administer shocks as needed. If a shockable rhythm is not detected, the AED will prompt the user to check the victim for a pulse, and to perform CPR if needed.
The delivery of an electrical shock to a heart experiencing SCA briefly stops all electrical activity in the heart. This brief “break” from the previous electrical chaos can be enough for the heart to restart beating with a normal rhythm.
Not everyone can be saved from SCA, even with defibrillation. But early defibrillation, especially when delivered within three minutes of a person’s collapse from SCA, does provide the best chance.
An AED is safe to use by anyone who’s been trained to operate it. Studies have shown the devices to be 90% sensitive (able 90% of the time to detect a rhythm that should be defibrillated) and 99% specific (able 99% of the time to recommend not shocking when defibrillation is not indicated). This level of accuracy is greater than the accuracy of emergency professionals. Because of the wide variety of situations in which it will typically be used, the AED is designed with multiple safeguards and warnings before any energy is released. The AED is programmed to deliver a shock only when it has detected VF. However, because recognizing the signs of sudden cardiac arrest should trigger an AED intervention, the AED should always be functional and available. That’s why training including safety and maintenance is important.
The AHA (American Heart Association) recommends that persons who live or work where an AED is available for use by lay rescuers participate in an AED Course. AEDs are so user-friendly that untrained rescuers can generally succeed in attaching the pads, pressing ANALYZE (if required), and delivering shocks. However, untrained rescuers probably would not know how to respond to the victim if the AED prompts “no shock indicated.” An operator needs only to follow the illustrations on the electrode pads and the control panel and listen and follow the voice prompts (for example, “Do not touch the patient”). While the fully automated version delivers shocks as needed, the partially automated AED will deliver a shock only when a shock is advised and the operator pushes the SHOCK button. This prevents a shock from being delivered accidentally.
An AED should not be used on a child younger than 8 years old or weighing less than about 55 pounds.
Almost anyone can learn to operate an AED with a few hours of training-no medical background is needed to use an AED. In fact, the American Heart Association says, “AEDs are sophisticated, computerized devices that are reliable and simple to operate, enabling lay rescuers with minimal training to administer this lifesaving intervention” (a defibrillation shock), and “flight attendants, security personnel, sports marshals, police officers, firefighters, lifeguard, family members, and many other trained laypersons have used AEDs successfully.”
AEDs are designed to help people with minimal training safely use them in tense, emergency situations. They have numerous built-in safeguards and are designed to deliver a shock only if the AED detects that one is necessary.
Their ease of use and built-in safety mechanisms make AEDs suitable for use in community, condominium, cooperative or company-wide programs.
Learning to use an AED and/or helping to place AEDs in public places will save lives.
Lay rescuers are most often asked to call 911 and get the AED. The lay rescuer can assemble the pocket face mask and begin providing mouth-to-mask ventilations. Responders might provide CPR or continue defibrillation if a Publicly Accessible Defibrillator (PAD) is used. Support and direction to bystanders, friends, and family are appropriate. When EMS personnel arrive, the lay rescuer can provide directions and help get information about the patient.
It’s helpful to EMS professionals to be able to set up their equipment, including the defibrillator, while lay rescuers continue CPR. The EMTs will take over CPR and reconfirm that the victim is in cardiac arrest.
There should be some type of debriefing for EMS personnel or lay rescuers involved in a resuscitation attempt. Also, the voice-rhythm-shock record should be collected from the AED’s event documentation system. The AHAstrongly recommends that AEDs used in a public access or home-responder setting have both rhythm and voice event documentation. AEDs can record and store (as a minimum) the following information:
- Patient rhythm throughout the resuscitation.
- Response of the AED (shock versus no shock; shockable rhythm versus nonshockable rhythm).
- Event and interval timing.
- Audio recording of the voices and actions recorded at the scene of a cardiac arrest.
When EMS professionals arrive they can access the information recorded in the local AED to better recreate a record of the “treatment’ received by the fortunate victim. This record will be used by doctors and medical professionals to more accurately diagnose the situation and render subsequent treatment. Fortunate victim? If the AED was not available, the victim would most likely have died. Unquestionably fortunate!
Early defibrillation with an on-site AED can be the difference between life and death.
The time to the first defibrillation shock is the most critical factor in determining survival rates for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). With every minute that goes by, survival rates decrease by about 10%. That leaves a window of ten minutes in which to potentially save your life or the life of someone you know, after which survival rates average less than 2%.
The best results for defibrillation occur in the first three minutes, measured from the moment the victim collapses to when the defibrillation shock is delivered. On average, it takes EMS teams in the U.S. an average of 6 to 12 minutes to arrive. That’s why having an AED readily accessible wherever groups of people gather makes good preventive sense.
Early defibrillation is one of the American Heart Association’s (AHA) four cornerstones in the Chain of Survival, which is now the worldwide guideline for response to sudden cardiac arrest. The AHA believes that early defibrillation could save as many as 50,000 lives each year. One of those lives could be yours, or that of someone you care about.
Time is critical when sudden cardiac arrest strikes. Every minute without defibrillation, survival rates plunge up to 10 percent. Quick action by the first person on-scene can truly be the difference between life and death. After the first few minutes, the spectre of brain damage precedes imminent death.
In recognition of the importance of early action and early defibrillation, the American Heart Association defined a “Chain of Survival” in 1990. The Chain of Survival is now the worldwide guideline for response to sudden cardiac arrest.
The Chain of Survival has four lifesaving links:
- Early Access: Dial 911 immediately
- Early Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Provide CPR to help maintain blood flow to the brain until the next step.
- Early Defibrillation: Defibrillation is the only way to restart a heart in sudden cardiac arrest.
- Early Advanced Care: After defibrillation, an emergency team provides advanced cardiac care on-scene, such as intravenous medications. This care continues during transport to the hospital.
Like fire extinguishers, AEDs in public places are becoming an expected standard
AEDs were introduced in 1979, and since that time hundreds of thousands of AEDs have been placed in police cars, airplanes, airports and bus terminals, hotels and casinos, sports arenas, high schools, manufacturing plants and other public places. The documented increase in survival rates at places with AED programs has raised public awareness about the importance of AEDs and the need for on-site accessibility.
Another important step came in 2000, when President Clinton signed the Cardiac Arrest Survival Act (CASA). Under CASA, the Federal government mandated the placement of AEDs in all federal buildings. CASA also provides immunity from liability for users and acquirers of AEDs. In addition to CASA, all 50 states have passed some form of “Good Samaritan” law, most providing protection for trained users of AEDs.
Cardiac Arrest Survival Act (CASA) of 2000 is our nation’s first legislation recognizing the lifesaving role played by automated external defibrillators (AEDs). The law highlights the need to make AEDs accessible to anyone who has had proper training, not just professional medical personnel. The law also augments existing state “Good Samaritan” laws by ensuring federal liability protection for trained users and purchasers of AEDs. Finally, the law establishes a new three-year, $25 million program to improve access to emergency defibrillation in rural areas.
CASA‘s goal is to encourage people to respond in a cardiac emergency by using an AED.
The law addresses the liability concerns raised by some organizations. For example, the legislation now protects trained AED users from liability, and also protects any person who has maintained the device, provided training, tested the device or acquired it. It even protects the physician who provides medical oversight for the device.
The Federal Aviation Administration recently submitted rules requiring most commercial aircraft to be equipped with AEDs. And the AHA is calling for widespread public access to AEDs, which “has the potential to be the single greatest advance in the treatment of VF cardiac arrest since the development of CPR”.
All of these factors are setting a new standard of care. And the results can be dramatic, such as the golf course team that saved a cardiac arrest victim’s life ten days after purchasing an AED. It’s stories like these that bring the meaning and the power of an AED program to life.
For Your Information!
With AEDs and trained responders – police, flight attendants, security officers, athletic coaches or anyone else who is likely to be at or near the scene of a cardiac arrest – it will be possible to significantly raise SCA survival rates. Before long, AEDs will become standard safety equipment in all types of settings: industrial facilities, commercial establishments, schools and ultimately even homes.
Emergency medical service (EMS) professionals and firefighters save many SCA victims each year, but a lack of equipment and time delays keep them from saving many more.
Lack of equipment
Unfortunately, not every emergency vehicle carries a defibrillator, the only device that can treat sudden cardiac arrest.
Lack of time
In some large metropolitan areas, an ambulance may not even get to the scene in less than 10 minutes due to traffic. And, on average, it takes EMS teams in the U.S. 6 – 12 minutes to arrive. So, even if an EMS team does have a defibrillator, the response time may not be fast enough to save a victim’s life.
Survival rates are highest for patients who receive a defibrillation shock within three minutes of collapse. This almost requires that an AED be on-site anywhere groups of people gather and that trained responders are available.
Remember, 90 – 95 percent of all SCA victims die. Documented AED programs have shown that survival rates can rise to 70 percent or more when an AED program is in place.
Waiting for medical professionals when someone is in sudden cardiac arrest could delay treatment – and could cost the person his or her life.
How to Implement an AED Program
Today more people are taking action to create Heart Safe Workplaces and Heart Safe Communities. Companies, schools and other organizations are working to set up early defibrillation programs to help more people who suffer sudden cardiac arrest. They’re installing portable defibrillators in key locations where people gather. They’re placing them in emergency vehicles that serve their community. People are even equipping their own homes with AEDs. Some day, AEDs may be as commonplace as fire extinguishers and first aid kits.
However, just buying an AED does not guarantee that people in the vicinity will know what to do, how to use it, or even remember that it’s there in a cardiac emergency. Implementing a comprehensive AED program helps ensure that this lifesaving tool will be used correctly should the need arise.
Although no two facilities or organizations will go about it in exactly the same way, this information will help guide you in establishing and successfully implementing an AED program.
It makes sense to tackle any worthwhile project in steps, and to assign a project manager to tailor a program for your situation. Here are steps for each stage (Ready, Set, Go) of AED implementation.
- Gain consensus among stakeholders
- Address liability concerns
- Consult local Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
- Identify your response team
- Arrange for prescription/medical direction
- Choose equipment and vendor
- Design policies and procedures – and keep improving
- Train response team and plan for refresher training
- Assess how many AEDs you’ll need and where to place them
- Develop a budget for equipment, training and promotion
- Buy and deploy AEDs and other supplies
- Promote your program
- Follow your quality assurance plan for people, equipment and procedures
Synopses of currently available AEDs
The nine companies listed above (Access CardioSystems, Cardiac Science, Inc., WelchAllyn, Inc., Physio-Control, Inc., Philips Medical Systems, Zoll Medical Corporation, HeartSine Technologies, Defibtech and Cintas) manufacture FDA approved Automated External Defibrillators. Some manufacturers make several AED models. The models described below are targeted to meet the needs of buildings such as ours. Check on the respective manufacturers’ web sites for more detailed information about the depicted models and their other available AED models.
Click on the Pictures of the AEDs or the Names of their manufacturers underneath to access the Manufacturer’s Web Site.
The information beneath each picture was provided by the manufacturer.
|Physio-Control LifePak CR Plus||Philips HeartStart OnSite||Welch Allyn AED-10|
|The LIFEPAK CR Plus AED is designed to be used by first responders to cardiac emergencies. Intuitive operation makes it the ideal product for infrequent users. It has voice prompts and lighted buttons to guide responders through operation. Pre-connected QUIK-PAK™ defibrillation electrodes save valuable time on-scene, are compatible with other LIFEPAK defibrillators used by most emergency medical services, and can stay with the patient all the way to intensive care. At only seven pounds, this rugged device is extremely portable. Sleek and lightweight, the CR Plus uses the latest ADAPTIV™ biphasic technology. If the heart doesn’t respond to the first shock, the device can provide additional, higher energy shocks, up to 360 joules. Automatic self-testing and a visible readiness display helps assure that the device is ready to go. More hospitals and nine out of the top 10 emergency medical services teams in the U.S. have LIFEPAK devices onboard.||Weighing just 3.3 lbs., this small and lightweight defibrillator can be easily carried to the patient’s side. Using clear, natural voice instructions, the OnSite Home Defibrillator guides you, the first caregiver on the scene, through each step of defibrillation and CPR. Integrated SMART Pads placed on the patient’s bare skin transmit information to the defibrillator, which senses and adapts to your actions every step of the way. HeartStart includes proven Philips technologies for heart rhythm assessment (SMART Analysis) and defibrillation energy delivery (SMART Biphasic). Using a highly accurate algorithm to determine whether a victim’s heart requires a shock, the HeartStart OnSite Defibrillator will only deliver a shock if it determines one is needed. Like all HeartStart defibrillators, it can be used to treat infants, children and adults. Daily self-tests of multiple system components, including a check for pads readiness, renders the device virtually maintenance free.||Welch Allyn AED-10 Automated External Defibrillator features:
|Cardiac Science PowerHeart||Samaritan PAD||Zoll AED Plus|
|The new Powerheart AED G3-Automatic incorporates the Company’s patented RHYTHMx analysis software and STAR® biphasic defibrillation energy waveform. It automatically detects, analyzes, and delivers life-saving defibrillation shock(s) to a cardiac arrest victim, eliminating the need to press a shock button. Patented RescueReady technology includes daily, weekly, and monthly self-tests of Intellisense lithium battery, internal electronics, the pre-connected electrodes (presence and function), software, and defibrillation pads, which assures first time, every time shock delivery. Powerheart AED G3 utilizes the industry’s first four-year, full replacement battery.||Using three simple icons and verbal instructions, the samaritan® PAD will clearly guide the rescuer through each step. The samaritan® PAD uses HeartSine’s SCOPE™ Biphasic technology (a low-energy waveform that adjusts for the differences in each person’s physical make-up) to deliver optimal defibrillation to every patient. The new innovative battery and electrode system cuts maintenance in half and helps ensure an optimal state of readiness. Just one expiration to track and replace. A flashing green STATUS light indicates system is operational and a CPR tone and flashing icon coach the rescuer in delivering chest compressions according to AHA or ERC 2005 guidelines.||The new ZOLL AED Plus combines simple illustrations and audio coaching to help make the rescue process more manageable and controlled. It is the only AED to include a CPR feedback sensor that helps rescuers avoid the two most common pitfalls of CPR – inadequate chest compression rate and depth. The unique one-piece electrode eliminates rescuer confusion and the AED Plus runs on long-lasting consumer lithium batteries. The ZOLL Rectilinear Biphasic™ waveform (RBW) is the only biphasic waveform cleared by the FDA to be labeled as clinically superior to monophasic waveforms for the conversion of ventricular fibrillation in high-impedance patients. It allows the AED Plus to deliver more current than any other AED when it matters most.|
|Physio-Control LifePak 1000||Zoll AED Pro||Philips HeartStart FR2+|
|The LIFEPAK® 1000 defibrillator is the most rugged defibrillator ever designed by Physio-Control, with an IP55 rating. ADAPTIV™ biphasic technology provides a range of energy up to 360 joules, and an upgradeable platform. Its cprMAX™ technology enables care providers to change protocols as standards of care evolve. A large, intuitive screen displays graphics and ECG readings that are clear and easy to read from a distance. A visible and accessible battery gauge gives rescuers the ability to assess battery readiness. The non-rechargeable battery can deliver more than 425 shocks. With easy customization of settings, data download and optional manual defibrillation (AED override) availability, the LIFEPAK 1000 is compatible with other Physio-Control products and services.||The Zoll AED Pro has a high-resolution LCD display that allows responders to visualize a patient’s ECG while utilizing a 3-lead monitoring cable. Able to withstand a 1.5-meter drop test, resistant to dust and water jets, superior design and rubber over-molds are built to withstand harsh environments. Built-in 7-hour internal memory and USB memory technology allows virtually unlimited data storage capacity, and maximum flexibility for data management and transfer. Long-life disposable or rechargeable batteries compatible with ZOLL M Series® professional defibrillators. Real CPR Help™ for rate and depth of chest compressions during CPR using ZOLL’s unique one-piece CPR-D•padz®. Available as semi-automatic only or semi-automatic with manual override for ALS professionals.||The Philips HeartStart FR2+’s commands are clear, streamlined, confident, and concise. The clean, uncluttered design includes an ECG display. The HeartStart FR2+ offers features that make hand-off to ALS professionals seamless for maximum continuity of care for the patient. The 4.7 lbs. FR2+ allows ALS responders to switch to a manual mode, giving them more control. Defibrillator pad adapters enable the pads to remain on the patient when transferring to many popular ALS manual defibrillators from Philips and other manufacturers. When equipped with special infant/child defibrillator pads that reduce the energy of the FR2+’s shock, you can safely treat a child or infant in cardiac arrest.|
|Defibtech LifeLine||WelchAllyn AED-20||Cardiac Science FirstSave AED|
|A calm voice guides the responder step by step while a text display with lights shows the progress. The biphasic defibrillation the Defibribtech LifeLine uses is extremely effective at defibrillating patients in ventricular fibrillation on the first shock. At just 4.2 pounds, including a 5 or 7-year lithium battery pack, a child could carry it. A calm voice guides the responder step by step while three lights display the progress and the “Power On” and “Shock” buttons are oversized and brightly lit so even the most nervous fingers will hit their mark. the AED performs automatic self-checks on a regular basis to test its operational readiness. The electrode pads are tucked into a back pocket ready to apply and the Lifeline AED meets US Military “drop and shock” specifications.||The WelchAllyn AED-20 demonstrates the latest advances in defibrillation technology and is designed to accommodate the needs of both basic and advanced life support personnel. Simple 1-2-3 operation, audible and visual prompts and a large high resolution, diagnostic quality display makes this unit easy-to-use. The AED 20 can be upgraded to include ECG Monitoring using traditional snap-based electrodes and manual defibrillator capabilities. Three devices in one compact package. The escalating Biphasic technology accomodates auto analysis, auto joule selection and auto charge activation of 200, 300, 360J or user configurable among the following energy options: 150, 200, 300, 360J. Datacard download with Windows software or print event report or ECG on any commercial printer.||Technology and value—the FirstSave AED G3 offers customers our leading edge AED technology in a value priced AED design. Opening the lid of the FirstSave AED G3 turns the AED on and readies it for use. Simple, easy-to-use, one-button operation and instructive voice prompts guide the user through every step of the rescue process. The new FirstSave AED G3 incorporates the Company’s patented RHYTHMx® analysis software and STAR® biphasic defibrillation energy waveform. It performs automated daily, weekly, and monthly self-tests on the battery, electrode presence, and internal electronics. Advises for shocks only when appropriate, and continues to monitor the patient even after AED makes shock decision and charges.|
|Powerheart AED G3 Pro||Philips HeartStart FRx||Physio-Control LifePak 500|
|Cardiac Science’s AED G3 Pro boasts the industry’s first ECG color display, provides manual override features, multiple rescue capability, and the most advanced rescue options, programmable functions, and advanced monitoring capabilities and simple, easy-to-use, one-button operation Intuitive and comprehensive voice prompts guide user through rescue. Patented RescueReady® technology includes daily, weekly, and monthly self-tests of battery, internal electronics, software, and pads, which assures first time, every time shock delivery. Its innovative technology includes an optional 3 lead continuous ECG patient monitoring along with configurable biphasic energy protocols and detection rates. Our Intellisense Lithium batteries, which come with a 4-Year unconditional performance guarantee, feature an internal analysis chip which records daily self-test data and provides charge level data to the onboard diagnostic software.||The HeartStart FRx Defibrillator’s SMART Biphasic waveform technology delivers a highly effective defibrillation shock that is also gentle to the heart. Able to automatically assess the victim’s heart rhythm, SMART Analysis (a proven Philips technology for heart rhythm assessment) ensures that FRx Defibrillator only shocks when it should — even if the shock button is pressed. Designed to surpass rigorous testing requirements, the FRx withstands jetting water, loads up to 500 pounds and a one-meter drop onto concrete. With features including CPR Coaching, intuitive icon-driven operation, clear voice commands and descriptive visual icons, the FRx even reminds you to call emergency medical services (EMS). Powered by an easy to install, long-life (four-year) battery, the device’s automated daily, weekly and monthly self-tests check the pads readiness, and verify functionality and calibration of circuits and systems. With over 85 self-tests, the FRx is virtually maintenance-free.||Medtronic LifePak 500 is the first choice of the pros. Intuitive enough to be easily utilized by first time responders, the LifePak 500 is also the ideal choice for more frequent, rugged use. It has clear screen messages, voice prompts and lighted buttons to guide responders through operation. LCD for text messages, shock count, CPR time, and real-time clock. Pre-connected QUIK-COMBO defibrillation electrodes save valuable time on-scene, are compatible with other LIFEPAK defibrillators used by most emergency medical services, and can stay with the patient all the way to intensive care. ADAPTIV™ biphasic technology adjusts shocks to patients’ individual needs. CprMAX™ technology allows resuscitation protocols that increase the amount of CPR administered consistent with AHA and ERC protocols. Automatic self-testing and a visible readiness display helps assure that the device is ready to go.|
The AEDs utilized by our local Fort Lauderdale Fire-Rescue are the Physio-Control Units. However, any of the FDA-approved units manufactured by the companies described here will SAVE YOUR LIFE!
These are links to sites that contain information about Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), and related topics.
- American Heart Association (AHA)
- Sudden Cardiac Arrest Association (SCAA)
- State Laws on Heart Attacks & Defibrillators
- Public Access Defibrillation League
- American Red Cross
- The Citizen CPR Foundation
- A Position Statement by the Citizen CPR Foundation
- American College of Emergency Physicians(ACEP)
- American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)
- National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP)
- iVillage Total Health – Heart Health
- National Registry of CardioPulmonary Resuscitation (NRCPR)
- Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA): AEDs
- Occupational Health & Safety Online – AEDs/CPR
- European Resuscitation Council
- European Resuscitation Council (UK) AED Guidelines
- Current News about Defibrillators (updated daily!)
Above information is courtesy of Galt Mile Associations (Florida) 2010 with our thanks!